An important collection of ancient Chinese bronze mirrors spanning 3,000 years will make its first public appearance this fall in an exhibition at The Huntington Library, Art Collections, and Botanical Gardens. “Ancient Chinese Bronze Mirrors from the Lloyd Cotsen Collection” will be on view from Nov. 12, 2011, through May 14, 2012, in the Chandler Wing of the Virginia Steele Scott Galleries of American Art.
The exhibition will include some 80 highly decorative early bronze mirrors, ranging in date from the Qijia Culture (2100–1700 B.C.) of pre- and early Chinese history, the Warring States period (450-221 B.C.), and the Han (206 B.C.-220 A.D.), Tang (618–906 A.D.), and Jin (1115-1234 A.D.) dynasties. Several related textile fragments will also be displayed.
The Lloyd Cotsen Collection was established by Lloyd Cotsen, a Los Angeles businessman, philanthropist, art collector, and member of The Huntington’s Board of Overseers. Cotsen purchased his first Chinese bronze mirrors in Hong Kong in the early 1950s while serving in the Navy during the Korean War. Today his collection contains thousands of pieces, including substantial assemblages of textiles, basketry and folk art.
“The Huntington is a natural venue for this exhibition,” notes Steven Koblik, Huntington president. “Our Chinese garden—Liu Fang Yuan, the Garden of Flowing Fragrance—not only has attracted the active support of the local Chinese American community but also has helped introduce the beauty of Chinese culture to visitors of all backgrounds. Programmatic activities like this exhibition are an ideal educational opportunity.”
Few things provide a clearer picture of an ancient civilization than the study of its material culture: the objects that individuals created, used, and valued. “From the earliest periods of China’s history, bronze mirrors have played a significant role in reflecting, both literally and symbolically, the face of the Chinese people,” says June Li, curator of the Chinese garden at The Huntington and organizer of the exhibition. In the exquisitely wrought designs and inscriptions that decorate the backs of these mirrors, centuries of craftsmanship, aesthetic taste, dynastic change, philosophy, and consumer culture are revealed.
Items of Luxury, Works of Art
As early as 2000 B.C., bronze technology was highly developed in China, and objects made from this alloy of copper, tin, and lead were considered luxury items, reserved for the aristocratic class. Among these coveted pieces were small bronze mirrors, some compact and portable enough to be held in one hand, and others large and heavy enough to require stands. Usually cast from clay molds, they were highly polished on one side, offering a reflective surface, while the other side was decorated with intricate patterns and designs that reveal an astonishing level of skill and artistry in their craftsmanship. Birds, dragons, and serpents were common motifs in the earliest mirrors. Later, more sophisticated and intricate designs included mythological figures, deities, animals of the Chinese zodiac, abstract patterns, background textures, inscriptions, enamelwork, and inlays of jade, turquoise, and mother-of-pearl.
That these mirrors were prized by their owners is evident not only in light of their fine craftsmanship but also because of related artifacts that point to how they were valued. A pottery tomb figure dating to about the first century B.C. depicts a woman gazing into a mirror while applying powder to her face. An elaborate cosmetic set includes a bronze mirror from around the first century A.D., accompanied by a silk brocade pouch, a wool powder puff, and a lacquered wooden box. Artifacts such as these, along with the mirrors themselves, provide a fascinating glimpse into the private lives of their users.
Cultural History Lessons
Yet mirrors also reflect the broad sweep of Chinese history—the rise and fall of dynasties, periods of war and peace, changing beliefs and values, and the influence of expanding commerce. As the Silk Road opened up trade routes to and from India, Persia, and Egypt, for example, new aesthetic elements borrowed from the West began to appear in Chinese design. Twisting grapevines, floral motifs, and intricate silver fretwork overlaid on bronze added exotic allure to these symbols of wealth and status.
Silk fabrics of related periods echoed many of the designs and patterns seen in Chinese mirrors. Selected textile fragments from the Lloyd Cotsen Collection will provide additional social, historical, and cultural context for the bronzes, adding to the viewer’s appreciation of these exquisite artifacts of daily life in early China.
The exhibition is accompanied by The Lloyd Cotsen Study Collection of Chinese Bronze Mirrors, a publication in two volumes edited by Lothar von Falkenhausen, scholar of art history and the archaeology of China at University of California, Los Angeles. Volume I (2009) is a fully illustrated catalog of the collection by Suzanne Cahill; Volume II (2011) contains essays by several noted historians. Both volumes are published by Cotsen Occasional Press/UCLA Cotsen Institute of Archaeology Press. The hardcover set ($450) is available at The Huntington’s Bookstore & More, email@example.com or 626-405-2142.
Events & Related Programming
Lecture: Suzanne Cahill, “Charts of the Cosmos: Chinese Bronze Mirrors and Textiles of the Warring States through the Tang Periods”
Nov. 15 (Tuesday), 7:30 p.m. Friends' Hall
Suzanne Cahill, history professor at University of California, San Diego, will speak on two types of early Chinese material culture, bronze mirrors and silk textiles, drawing examples from the Cotsen collections. Cahill will read the designs on mirrors and textiles as templates that tell us what early Chinese elites believed was true and important, what they desired, and what they feared, and suggest that, over a long period of time, artisans producing works in two such apparently different media influenced each other’s designs.
Lecture: Lothar von Falkenhausen, “The Introduction and Transformation of Mirrors in China”
Feb. 7, 2012 (Tuesday), 7:30 p.m. Friends' Hall
Lothar von Falkenhausen, scholar of art history and the archaeology of China at University of California, Los Angeles, speaks on the origin and geographic spread of Chinese bronze mirrors.
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